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Graduate Student Handbook
History of Science and Technology

  This Graduate Student Handbook is designed to provide information that will help you in your graduate career. It should be considered supplementary to the more authoritative Graduate School Catalog, which is now available on line at the Graduate School web site  We have not attempted to include all of the Graduate School rules but have instead focused on the major requirements of our Program in History of Science and Technology.  In the event of any conflict, the Graduate School requirements take precedence.  If you find any errors or misleading statements in this Handbook, please call them to the attention of the Director of Graduate Studies (DGS).

  This Handbook is not a substitute for detailed discussions with the DGS and your faculty advisor.  Our web page also provides useful information.

Table of Contents

I. Introduction 
A.  Overview of the Program
B.  Financial Aid
C.  Responsibilities of a Teaching Assistant

II. Program of Study 
A. General Considerations and Requirements
B. Distribution Requirements for Graduate Degrees
C. Master's Degree
D. Ph.D. Degree
1.  Ph.D. Minor and Supporting Program
2.  Ph.D. Language Requirements
3.  Ph.D. Official Degree Program
4.  Ph.D. Research Papers
5.  Ph.D. Preliminary Examinations
6.  Ph.D. Dissertation
E. Summary of Program Requirements 
F. Time Line and Graduate School Requirements

III. Professional Development 
A.  Travel Funds
B.  Graduate Student Organization 

IV. Graduate Minor in the History of Science and Technology

   Welcome to the Program in History of Science and Technology!  Graduate study in the history of science and technology is distinctive from many other academic disciplines.  It is still a relatively young field, it is highly interdisciplinary, and prepares students for several career possibilities.  Most students entering the field will have had just a few courses, if any, in history of science and technology during their undergraduate studies.  This leads to the exciting prospect of entering a discipline that possesses a wide variety of approaches and spans many areas of knowledge.

  In your first year you will acquire basic knowledge in the field through your course work and will also learn the nature of the discipline, its methods, and its fundamental questions.  You should try to acquire an overview even as you identify those areas of inquiry of most interest to you.  Most incoming students have identified a broad area of specialization such as the history of the biological or natural sciences, or the history of technology.  You should soon begin to think about a more specific research area for your dissertation.  During your second year, your research interests will become more focused and gain depth from supporting courses.  Subsequent years will be devoted principally to specialized research for your dissertation. (return)

A. Overview of the Program
   Our program is all-university in that it integrates faculty and students from many departments and programs.  Each faculty member has a joint appointment in a science or engineering department and often graduate faculty appointments in other departments as well, ensuring close association with appropriate fields.  We have particularly strong ties with the Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science and the Program in the History of Medicine.  These university and departmental connections are a major source of intellectual stimulation and support for both faculty and graduate students.  Since graduate students have offices in the Social Sciences Building on the West Bank, while faculty have offices in several departments on the East Bank and in St. Paul, the Program is physically dispersed and a greater effort than usual has to be made to maintain a sense of community.  You will get to know your fellow students and faculty through courses and the Friday colloquia, by working together on classroom assignments and as teaching assistants, and at various social occasions.  With only a little effort it is easy to get to know all the faculty and students in a small program such as ours.  The faculty has an "open door" policy and will always be glad to talk with you when they are free.

  The Program sponsors numerous scholarly presentations by visiting scholars, including our Friday lecture series, the History of Science and Technology Colloquium.  Besides bringing all members of the program together, these occasions provide all members an opportunity to become and remain familiar with contemporary research and many of the field's leading practitioners.  Because they serve such important functions, attendance at these colloquia is required of all graduate students. 

  In 1991 the Program inaugurated a graduate minor in cooperation with the Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science and the Department of Philosophy, "Studies in Science and Technology" (SST).  The minor includes research seminars sometimes taught jointly by philosophers and historians of science and co-sponsors the weekly colloquium series with our Program.  Many of the lectures in the History of Science and Technology Colloquium are cosponsored by SST, but a few SST lectures are not part of our Program's regular series.  HST students are not required to attend lectures sponsored by SST alone but are encouraged to attend those that interest them.  Schedules of the History of Science and Technology Colloquium and the SST seminars are distributed at the beginning of each term and posted on the program web site (

  Choosing your advisor(s) is a critical step in your graduate career, for he or she will assist you in planning your course of study and later will supervise your dissertation.  Since your advisor plays such an important role, especially in the intense period when you are writing your dissertation, it is essential that you are comfortable working with him or her.  If you arrive without knowing whom you want as your advisor, the Director of Graduate Studies will assist you.  All students are encouraged during their first year to arrange an informal meeting with each member of the faculty to learn about their research activities and discuss areas of mutual interest.  By the end of the first year, most students are ready to make an informed choice of an advisor; the advisor may subsequently be changed for an adequate reason.  By the end of the second year, students should have decided on a research area, if not yet a precise topic.

  You will find it useful to get into the habit of browsing through the leading journals in the field, particularly Isis and Technology and Culture so that you can become aware of the contemporary state of research.  Copies of those published in the last four years are found in the reading room at Walter Library.  Since many articles and entire journals are in French and German, this is also a good way to hone your skills in these languages.  Becoming a member of one or more of the principal professional societies (especially the History of Science Society and the Society for the History of Technology, plus more specialized associations for the history of physics, biology, geology, or other fields) is an important professional step.  Students should also plan to attend annual and regional meetings (such as the Midwest Junto, Mephistos,  Friday Harbor Group, and the Joint Atlantic Seminars) as a way of becoming integrated into the active research community.  The major societies offer substantially reduced dues for students, and the Program usually has some funds available for graduate student travel to professional meetings (see Section III.A).  (return)

B. Financial Aid  Student aid is available through the Program. 
  Many students have also benefited from taking positions elsewhere at the University during their graduate career.  The Program has several teaching assistantships, and students have also applied for and received teaching appointments in other departments including composition, physics, biology, and General College.  Research assistantships are sometimes available through faculty in the Program or in other departments as well.  You are encouraged to explore fellowship opportunities and sources of support outside the Program with your advisor.

  It is particularly useful for students to seek financial aid as they begin to do research and writing for their Ph.D. dissertation.  Graduate School Dissertation Fellowships require nomination by the program.  The decision about which students will be nominated is made collectively by our faculty.  There are also various forms of support for travel and research from the National Science Foundation as well as from some major research libraries like the American Philosophical Society and the Rockefeller Research Center.  Some of the financial support available through the Program is reserved for new students.

  If you do not wish to be considered for financial support for a particular year, please tell the Program Director or the DGS as early as possible.  Likewise, if you receive financial aid of any sort from a source outside the Program, you should immediately (within one day) report it to the DGS or Director since it may make some funds available, such as tuition support, that may then be given to another student, and it may also affect your status as a graduate student.  (The urgency in reporting arises because some of the sources will not allow funds to be redesignated after a certain date or after the beginning of a new semester.)

  Discussions about financial support for students continuing in the Program begin in early March, although final decisions are usually not made until late in the spring semester.  There are two principal reasons for the delay.  First, the university administration (typically because of delays at the state legislature) does not set the Program's budget until late.  Second, some students who are initially awarded support through the program are later offered fellowships or other forms of support from outside the Program (e.g., Graduate School Dissertation Fellowships, TA appointments in related fields, etc.).  Thus, funds initially committed to one student later become available to another student.  The Director of Graduate Studies will contact you as soon as the faculty have made their preliminary decisions. 

  Decisions about financial support are made by the entire faculty.  Each student's progress in the Program is discussed before decisions are made.  Although we do not have a formula, we take a number of specific factors into account (the first is the major consideration and the others vary in their weight in the decision): 
· terms of offer at time of acceptance into the Program
· scholarly accomplishments; e.g., published papers, archival and museum contributions
· academic achievement; e.g., quality of exams and research papers
· timely progress toward completion of degree; e.g., a limited number of incompletes
· previous record as a TA or RA
· professional activities; e.g., papers presented and sessions organized 
· years of support (except in special circumstances, the maximum length of support from the program is three years; after three years of Program support, students should seek support from outside the program)  (return)

C. Responsibilities of a Teaching Assistant in the Program 
  Most full-time doctoral students in the Program at some point participate in teaching undergraduate classes.  Generally, this involves leading recitation sections (typically 12 to 25 students) in conjunction with larger lecture classes.  Sometimes a TA is assigned to grade papers or otherwise assist faculty who have large classes but do not use sections. 

  Teaching assistants are expected to attend lectures, prepare for sections, conduct them, grade students' work in a timely manner, and to assist the instructor in the lecture classes. In addition, they are expected to participate in all TA meetings, turn in all paperwork in a timely fashion, proctor exams, notify the faculty member of any problems, and participate fully in the course to which they are assigned.   Every TA must act responsibly as a professional instructor, which includes scheduling regular office hours and encouraging students in their work.   If any responsibility, including meeting with classes, cannot be met, the faculty supervisor or the department chair must be notified in advance.  It is important to remember that you represent the entire department while you are instructing and advising undergraduates.

  A 50% teaching assistantship requires 20 hours of work each a week, on average.   If you find that your work load varies significantly from that (too little or too many hours), please speak to your supervisor or to the DGS.

  The Program requires that students attend orientation sessions for new TAs offered by the university and any special meetings called for TAs by the Program.  For students who anticipate a future in academe, we encourage participation in the Preparing Future Faculty program, which helps students develop teaching portfolios and introduces them to current trends in higher education. 

 TAs are required to maintain good progress (as outlined by the Graduate School) with regard to degree forms and as indicated in their annual review. (return)

A.  General Considerations and Requirements
  In a small program such as ours, in which students have diverse undergraduate training and interests, it is appropriate that each student's course of study be individually planned within the framework of University requirements.  Each advisor will assist his or her advisee, but all students are encouraged to take personal initiative to develop an imaginative and sound program to fit their interests and future plans.

  In planning for each semester, students may want to consult with faculty about the requirements for every class, since the demands vary significantly.  Thus, one combination of four courses might be quite feasible in a given semester while another combination of three courses might not be reasonable.  In particular, students should keep in mind the difficulty of undertaking too many major research projects at one time.  It is important to work closely with your advisor or the DGS on these matters.

  You will want to make steady progress toward your degree.  You must maintain a cumulative grade point average (GPA) of 3.3 or above (the first calculation is at the end of the first year).  It may occasionally be advantageous to work on a paper beyond the end of the term in order to prepare one of publishable quality, but you should consult with the instructor about whether to submit a preliminary version or to take an incomplete in the class.  It is disadvantageous to take incompletes since they will take up time in your second or third year when you should be moving on to independent research and your dissertation topic.  You are not allowed to have more than two incompletes at any time. 

  All take-home examinations in History of Science and Technology courses must be submitted by the specified time to ensure that all students are treated equitably.  If you fail to submit your examinations by the due date, you will have that assignment counted as a zero unless there are extenuating circumstances. 

  If you have more than two incompletes or your GPA is below 3.3, you will not be allowed to register.  In order to take your preliminary examinations you must eliminate all incompletes in your approved program of study.  (return)

B. Distribution Requirements for Graduate Degrees
  The Program offers opportunities for advanced research and study in four general areas:  history of the physical sciences, history of the biological sciences, history of technology, and history of science and technology in American culture.  Study in these areas may be done using one or more of the following approaches:  conceptual development within the disciplinary fields; social, economic, and cultural contexts; and the interaction among science, technology, and society.  Within these frameworks you will have opportunities to take courses and do research in your intended area of specialization.  The Program's distribution requirements are designed to ensure that you achieve breadth in your studies, that you understand where your work fits into the larger field, that you appreciate the work of your colleagues, and that you are better able to serve your students. 

Only one course, HSci 8111 (Historiography of Science and Technology), to be taken during your first year, is required of all graduate students.  In addition, all graduate students are required to take six courses distributed in two broad areas of study, indicated above.  This requirement is usually satisfied by taking three one-semester courses in each of the two areas.  The definition of the area to which a course belongs is not a rigid one; for example, HSci 8940, "Science and Technology in America," might count as history of the physical or the biological sciences or as history of technology.  Decisions as to whether a course counts toward a particular area will be based in part on the content emphasized in assigned and elected projects and will be made in consultation with your advisor and the Director of Graduate Studies.

  Ph.D. candidates are also required to take a minimum of two courses in the pre-1800 period and a minimum of two courses in the post-1800 period.  Courses used to satisfy the area requirements may also be used to satisfy these "period" requirements.  The courses most commonly used to satisfy the period and area requirements are HSci 8124 (Foundations for Research in Ancient Science) and HSci 8125 (Foundations for Research in the Scientific Revolution), and HSci 8930 (History of Technology).  In seminars for which there is a related undergraduate class (as HSci 1814 with HSci 8124 and 8125) students attend the undergraduate lectures but do not sign up for that class or take exams.  Other surveys are available as 4000- and 5000-level courses devoted to specific topics; the 4000 courses require prior permission to count as graduate studies.   (return)

C. Master's Degree
  Master's candidates also take three courses in each of two areas and must demonstrate a proficiency in one foreign language, normally either French or German.  Each student may chose between two M.A. degree plans.  The Plan A Master's degree is research oriented and culminates in a substantive thesis (with 10 credits of research taken as HSci 8777).  The Plan B Master's degree involves a significant project or series of papers that require at least 120 hours of research. 

  Both Master's degrees involve an examination, normally involving three faculty members.  Two of the committee members are drawn from the major field and the third comes from another program or department in the University.  The Master's degree exam is solely an oral exam and there is no written component.  Students in either plan must complete a minimum of 20 credits in the major field and a minimum of 6 credits in one or more related fields outside the Program.   Be sure to check the Graduate School Catalog concerning general requirements of the University. (return)

 D. Ph.D. Degree
  Ph.D. candidates typically complete their course work in the first two years.  Many of the classes taken during the first year are intended to satisfy your distribution requirements.  In the second year students take more advanced courses and seminars and begin to concentrate in their field of specialization.  There is no specific set of major courses required for the Ph.D. beyond those that satisfy the distribution requirements, and students may elect to take additional courses to complement their program.  Because ours is a small program, much of your advanced work may be through directed studies or research courses, planned with your advisor and the proposed faculty member. Be sure to check the Graduate School Catalog concerning general requirements (including credits) of the University.  (return)

  1. Ph.D. Minor and Supporting Program

  The Graduate School requires that Ph.D. candidates take at least 12 credits either in a single "minor" field or in a "supporting program" that consists of a coherent pattern of courses taken from several disciplines.  A "minor" is defined by the department or program that offers it.  Thus it may require that you include particular classes or sequences of classes, so it is essential to meet with the Director of Graduate Studies in a program that might interest you.  Many students in our Program take 12 or more credits outside their major and create an individual "supporting program."  These classes, selected with your advisor and the Program DGS, may consist of related technical courses in science or engineering, or of courses in cognate fields such as philosophy of science or history, or in a combination of these.  The option you chose will depend on your prior training and future plans.  (return)

  2. Ph.D. Language Requirements

  All graduate students must demonstrate a reading proficiency in two foreign languages.  Since much of the primary and secondary literature in the history of science and technology is in French and German, most students have demonstrated proficiency in these two languages.  It is possible to request a substitution of another foreign language; however, the request must be motivated in terms of your scholarly plans.  The Program faculty collectively decides on each exception.  As you may need languages for some courses, you are urged to arrive with a reading knowledge of one language and to complete the second one by the beginning of the second year.  Typically, you should have completed both languages by the beginning of your third year.  You will not be permitted to take the preliminary examinations until you have satisfied the language requirements.

There are four ways to satisfy your language requirements:

1) A language certification gained at another college or university may be presented.

2) Specific language courses for graduate students offered through the College of Continuing Education (CCE) will satisfy the requirement.  French 0001 and German 0222 are offered at night and in the summer.  Students may also take French 1001 and 1002 or German 1001 and 1002, passing each with a B or better grade; students who have some background and elect to take intermediate French or German simply need to have a passing grade (C or better) in 1003 or above.  You should contact each language department to determine their prerequisites.  In some years the department may have funds to help pay for summer language courses.

3) Several language departments offer proficiency examinations in lieu of courses.  These are rumored to be difficult and very few of our students have taken this option.

4) Program faculty may give a reading test, but that is up to each individual member.  (return)

  3. Ph.D. Official Degree Program
  The Graduate School provides a checklist of responsibilities and a schedule.  This will keep you on track with your program.  One important step in your second year is filing a Degree Program form that lists all of the courses in your major field and minor or supporting program that you intend to count toward the degree requirements.  This must be approved by your advisor and the DGS.  It must be filed at least two terms before you take your preliminary examinations.  The Graduate School may put a hold on your registration if it is not filed by the end of your second year.  (return)

  4. Ph.D. Research Papers
  Historians at the doctoral level become producers of history.  Thus, most courses will have you writing shorter papers of one sort or another.  Students are also strongly advised to write more substantive and enterprising research papers, with the goal of publishing one or two papers before graduation.  Typically early drafts of these will have been used to satisfy the requirements of a lecture course or seminar and are subsequently developed on a student's own initiative or in a directed research course such as HSci 5994 (Directed Research).  These publications may also grow out of presentations prepared for national and regional meetings during the third and fourth year of graduate study.  Certainly prospects on the job market are enhanced by publications prior to graduation and serve as indicators of your professional intentions.  (return)

  5. Ph.D. Preliminary Examinations

  The preliminary examination for the Ph.D. degree consists of both a written and an oral examination.   The written examination is restricted to questions on the major history of science and technology while the oral also includes the minor or supporting program.  Both examinations are normally taken after the end of the second year of course work but no later than the end of the third year.  Exceptions are made for those students who are taking a Master's degree in another field and who may thus need more course work in the major.  There are no set dates for the preliminary examination and so the schedule is worked out by the Director of Graduate Studies, who administers it, and the members of the examining committee.  The Graduate School also requires that forms be filed before each step of the examination, so check their requirements carefully.

  The members of the preliminary examination committee are chosen by you and your advisor in consultation with the DGS.  It almost always consists of five members, three from history of science and technology and two from the minor or supporting program; additional members may be added.  One dissenting vote is allowed with a five-member committee.

  The written examination is prepared specifically for each student.  Thus students are urged to arrange at least one discussion with each member of the committee one or two semesters prior to the examinations in order to determine what will be expected of you.  There are also copies of the previous examinations in the graduate student offices that will help in preparation.

  The written examination is taken in one six-hour period, although students for whom English is a second language may be allowed additional time.  You are required to answer four questions: two questions prepared by your advisor and one question each from the other two members of our faculty on your examining committee. The examinations are closed book.  The results must be reported to the Graduate School on a form presented by the student at least one week before the oral examination may be officially scheduled.

  The oral examination is scheduled for two hours (although it may be somewhat shorter or longer) and questions will be asked by the entire examining committee, including members representing your minor or supporting program.  Students who fail the written examination may take it one more time, provided the examining committee recommends it.  Similarly, students who fail the oral examination may be permitted to take it one more time if the examining committee approves. Details about the examinations may be found in the Graduate School Catalog. (return)

  6. Ph.D. Dissertation

  The dissertation topic is chosen in consultation with your advisor.  The choice of a topic is a highly significant decision and one that has implications for your immediate progress as well as your career.  On the one hand, it is desirable to decide on your topic early so that you may better plan your course of study and complete your degree expeditiously.  On the other hand, if you decide on a topic too early you may make an unwise choice.  Clearly a balance must be struck between the two extremes.  During your second year you should at least narrow down your choice to a specific area if not a precise topic.   You should also consult widely with the Program faculty who may be able to assist you in choosing a topic and help you locate research materials.

  Your dissertation proposal should be submitted to the Program faculty for approval within one semester after your qualifying examination.  The proposal should be five to ten pages long plus a bibliography.  You also need to file with the Graduate School a thesis title form and a 250-word statement of your research and methods no later than a semester after passing the preliminary oral examination.  The Graduate School may put a hold on your registration if this form is not filed in a timely manner. 

  The rules for determining your dissertation readers (three readers, two from inside the program), the final examination committee (at least five members, two from outside the program), and the final examination itself are complicated, so you should read the Graduate School Catalog carefully. The committee will typically be similar to your preliminary examination committee but it need not be the same.  While you may select committee members from outside the University, the Program does not pay for their expenses and you must make arrangements with the DGS at least two months before the examination itself so that the requisite paperwork can be completed with the Graduate School. (return)

E. Summary of Program Requirements*
Requirements M.A. Ph.D.
Time Limit not more than 7 yrs. total not more than 5 yrs. past candidacy
File Degree Program** after 12 credits; not later than 3rd semester during 2nd yr.
Distribution Requirements 6 "area" courses and HSci 8111 (20 credits minimum) 6 "area" courses; 4 "period" courses, and HSci 8111
Minor Courses Required  6 credits 12 credits in minor or supporting program
Languages 1: French or German 2: French and German, preferably by beginning of 2nd year
Preliminary Exam Committee Not Applicable 5 members:  3 from major, 
2 from "minor"
Preliminary Written Exam** None by end of 3rd year
Preliminary Oral Exam** None not less than 1 week after passing written
Register Thesis Title**  no time requirement for Plan A; no thesis requirement for Plan B within 1 semester of passing oral exam
Thesis Credits Required  10 for Plan A (HSci 8777);0 for Plan B 24 (HSci 8888)
GPA minimum GPA of 3.3 minimum GPA of 3.3
Final Oral Committee** 3 members (2 from major)  5 members:  3 readers; 2 from outside major

 *See also the Graduate School Catalog concerning general Graduate School requirements.

**Obtain necessary forms from Graduate School Office, 3rd Floor, Johnston Hall or by going on line at (return)

F. Time Line and Graduate School Requirements

Master's Degree

HST Program recommended time line for M.A. students
· By the end of the first year, choose an advisor.
· By the beginning of the second year, decide on a research area, if not yet a precise topic.
· Complete language requirement by the beginning of your second year.
· In your second year file a Degree Program form.

Master's Degree Requirements for Graduation
All Graduate School requirements for graduation are listed below. Unless stated otherwise, you should submit all forms to 316 Johnston Hall. Forms may be picked up at the locations listed in the web site above. Note: All students must submit an Application for Degree to 200 Fraser Hall or 130 Coffey Hall on or before the first working day of the intended month of graduation.

Plan A
1. After completion of about 10 credits, file a Degree Program form. 

2. Once the Degree Program has been approved by the Graduate School and the thesis is ready to go to the reviewers, request a graduation packet on-line(see web site listed above), or by visiting 316 Johnston Hall. The Thesis Reviewers Report form will be issued at that time. Remember to allow your committee at least 2 weeks to read the thesis. 

3. Submit the Application for Degree to 200 Fraser or 130 Coffey by the first working day of the intended month of graduation.

4. Submit the signed Thesis Reviewer's Report form to 316 Johnston Hall. The Final Examination Report Form will be given to you at that time. You must have the Final Exam Form before you report for the exam. 

5. Return the Final Examination Report form by the last working day of the intended month of graduation. 

6. Submit two unbound copies of your thesis, both signed by your adviser(s), by the last working day of the intended month of graduation. 

Plan B
1. After completion of about 10 credits, file a Degree Program form. 

2. Once the Degree Program has been approved by the Graduate School, pick up the Final Examination Report form and the graduation packet before your final oral examination. You must have the Final Exam Form before you report for the exam. 

3. Submit an Application for Degree to 200 Fraser or 130 Coffey by the first working day of the intended month of graduation. 

4. Return the Final Examination Report form by the last working day of the intended month of graduation.

Doctoral Degree

HST Program recommended time line for Ph.D. students
· By the middle of the second year, choose an advisor. 
· By the end of the second year, decide on a research area, if not yet a precise topic.
· Complete both language requirements by the beginning of your third year. 
· In your second year (at least two terms before your Preliminary Oral Exam) file a Degree Program form.
· Normally after the end of the second year of course work but no later than the end of the third year, take the preliminary written and oral examinations. 

Doctoral Degree Requirements for Graduation
All Graduate School requirements for graduation are listed below. Unless stated otherwise, you should submit all forms to 316 Johnston Hall. Forms may be picked up at the locations listed in the web site above. Note: All students must submit an Application for Degree to 200 Fraser Hall or 130 Coffey Hall on or before the first working day of the intended month of graduation. 

1. At least two terms before your Preliminary Oral Exam, file a Degree Program form. 

2. After completion of all Preliminary Written Exams and at least one week before the Preliminary Oral Exam, submit the Preliminary Written Examination Report form. 

3. Schedule the Preliminary Oral with the Graduate School at least one week in advance of the exam. The Prelim Oral must take place at least one academic term (15 weeks) before the Final Oral Defense. 

4. Within one working day of completion of the Prelim Oral exam, submit the signed Preliminary Oral Examination Report form. 

5. The term after passing the Preliminary Oral Examination, submit the Thesis Proposal form. 

6. Anytime after the Thesis Proposal has been approved by the Graduate School, you can request your graduation packet from 316 Johnston Hall. The Thesis Reviewer's Report form will be issued at that time. 

7. Submit an Application for Degree to 200 Fraser or 130 Coffey by the first working day of the intended month of graduation. 

8. Submit the signed Thesis Reviewer's Report form and schedule the Final Oral Defense at least one week prior to the exam. 

9. Return the signed Final Oral Examination Report form no later than one working day following completion of the Final Oral Defense. 

10. Submit a copy of the thesis abstract and a copy of the thesis (all signed by the advisor[s]) plus the Microfilm Agreement Form and the Survey of Earned Doctorates by the last working day of the intended month of graduation.   (return)

A. Travel Funds
  The Program usually has a small amount of money available for graduate student travel.  Priorities for distributing the funds are 1) dissertation research, 2) delivery of a paper at a professional meeting, particularly for students on the job market, and 3) attendance at a professional meeting.  For the sake of equity, previous awards of funds will also be taken into consideration.   Since funds are limited; the full amount of travel expenses will generally not be awarded. 

  To apply for travel funds, send a brief statement to the Director of the Program concerning the purpose, dates, and estimated expenses of the travel.  You should also consult with your advisor about your planned travel. 

Groups of students who want to drive to a meeting in the region (the Midwest Junto or a national meeting being held within driving distance) may also apply for automobile expenses. (return)

B. Graduate Student Organization
  The graduate student community has traditionally been a cohesive and supportive group.  Policy decisions are made by consensus and activities arranged informally.  There are some responsibilities that are assumed by students to assist the Program and each other.

  Graduate students share office space.  Each student who is a teaching assistant or who plans to spend considerable time on campus has a desk in the offices on the first floor of the Social Sciences Building.  These desks are distributed, by convention, on the basis of seniority.  The office also provides shared bookshelves, a telephone and computers.  All students are assigned an e-mail address and can get further information using the University hotline at 612-301-4357.

  The sense of community is created by activities that incorporate both academic and social interests of students.  Informal readings groups are organized on occasion to discuss topics of common interest such as science and literature, science biography, the scientific revolution, and women in technology.  On most Fridays, graduate students meet to have lunch with the invited colloquium speaker.  Post-colloquium gatherings at a local tavern and receptions hosted by faculty members give faculty, post-docs, and graduate students the opportunity to socialize once a week in an informal setting.

  Because of the size of the Program a liaison system was initiated with one or two students designated to represent their peers in certain circumstances.  This occurs when there is a need to 1) communicate specific graduate student concerns to the faculty, 2) facilitate the carrying-out of various tasks requiring the attention of graduate students, and 3) communicate with the Director of the Program about any incidents or problems involving a student, post-doctoral appointee, or faculty member with regard to a graduate student (e.g., sexual harassment) so that the anonymity of the complainant may be preserved. 

Each year a graduate student also volunteers to represent graduate student interests at the semester meetings of the Council of Graduate Students (COGS). 

First year graduate students make preparations for the coffee and tea served at the reception preceding the Friday colloquium.  This task involves two students, one makes the coffee and the other picks up cookies.  Our administrator, Barbara Eastwold, provides the initial training for these tasks.  (return)

  Students taking the graduate minor in the History of Science and Technology are required to take four three-credit courses.  The Director of Graduate Studies will work with individual students to define the course of study, which should have some identifiable focus but also certain breadth.  Students should not plan to take all courses in the minor from the same faculty member. (return)

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Updated: September 2005